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Solution to Christmas Puzzle 2.
CHRISTMAS FANTASY LAND

Let R, B, G and Y be the values of the Red, Blue, Green and Yellow gifts respectively.   To solve the problem, we use the following algebraic equations:

     R + 2B = 2G
     G+Y=R+B
     2Y+R=G
     G=xY

where x is an integer representing the number of yellow gifts.

Solving for x, it can be shown that a Green gift is worth 4 Yellow gifts, a Blue gift is worth 3 Yellow gifts, and a Red gift is worth is worth 2 Yellow gift.

 

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Second Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions

Author:  Martin Gardner

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